Weed Master Video Update!

We are wrapping up the final reports for our NE SARE-funded project that supported our on-farm trials of the Weed Master.  In addition to inspiring this blog, we used this project as a test case for using video to capture the on-farm trials and experiences of participating growers and our research group.  Tavi Merrill, who recently graduated from the University of Maine Sustainable Agriculture undergraduate program, has done a fine job of directing and editing these videos.

We are continuing our field research on hand tools and scale-appropriate weeding tools for the small farm.  Ben Costanzi is a new M.S. student who will focus on this topic for his thesis work.

You can view the most recent videos below, or go to our YouTube Channel:

http://www.youtube.com/user/zeroseedrain

 

Prologue to the Weed Master Project

 

Weed Master Field Trial:  Fisher Farm

 

Weed Master Field Trial:  Fail Better Farm


Weed Seedbanks: 2009 On-farm Sampling

Seedbanks
“Credits” to the weed seedbank occur when weeds shed seed, i.e., seed rain, and “debits” when seeds are removed from the soil by germination, predation, or decay/death, in this declining order of importance.
Seedbanks on the Beech Grove, New Leaf and Peacemeal Farms
During the 2009 field season we visited Eric and Anne Nordell of the Beech Grove Farm in Trout Run, PA, Dave and Christine Colson of New Leaf Farm in Durham, ME, and Mark Guzzie and Marcia Ferry of Peacemeal Farm in Dixmont, ME, to collect soil samples from selected fields.  At each sampled location on each farm we collected ten soil cores (6.5 cm diam. x 10 cm deep) from a 25 square meter area.  Soil samples were sieved to remove stones and spread over a layer of vermiculite and placed in a greenhouse.  Weed seedlings were identified, recorded and removed weekly.  The soil was allowed to dry and was then mixed and replaced in the flats once a month for four months.
Weed communities were comprised of an average 8 to 10 species on each farm (see Table, below).  The three most abundant species at the Peacemeal Farm are troublesome in most vegetable crops and are a widespread problem among northeastern vegetable growers.  At the New Leaf Farm, smooth crabgrass was the top-ranked species, primarily because of a large infestation in a field where pigs had been pastured.  Low cudweed and corn spurry, while a problem in salad mix, are not particularly troublesome in most other vegetable crops.  At the Beech Grove Farm, typically pernicious summer annual weeds were rare and not among the top ranked species.

Typical samples are shown below.  These photos were taken after approximately 4 weeks in the greenhouse.  They offer a visual representation of the “low,” “medium,” and “high” seedbanks measured on these farms.

Seedbank Management

Managing weeds with a focus on the seedbank looks at the farming system with an eye first towards opportunities for preempting seed rain with short-season cash or cover crops that are harvested or terminated before troublesome weed species produce mature seeds.  Next, opportunities for shallow soil disturbance, strategically-timed to be coincident with weed species-specific peak emergence potential, will encourage germination.  Subsequent disturbance events can kill these “flushes” of weeds.  When seed rain occurs, opportunities for predation are greater if seeds remain on the soil surface.  This hypothesis, that fall tillage should be delayed to encourage seed predation is the focus of current field studies.

For more information see:

Managing weeds with crop rotation

http://www.newenglandvfc.org/pdf_proceedings/2009/MWWCR.pdf

and these eXtension articles:

Manage the Weed Seed Bank—Minimize “Deposits” and Maximize “Withdrawals”

http://www.extension.org/article/18527

Manipulating Weed Seed Banks to Promote their Decline

http://www.extension.org/article/18528

Rain, rain, rain…

Tuesday, July 7, 2009

Wolf Pine Farm, Alfred, Maine

On the way to the York County Farmers’ Network July meeting at Wildroot Farm in Kennebunk, we stopped by Wolf Pine Farm so Amy Sprague and crew could field test the Weed Master cultivation tools.  Unfortunately, the rain started soon after we completed assembly, but with a coarse textured site in mind, and the seemingly unending days of rain we have had in recent weeks, we headed to the field.

Although the finger weeders were quickly clogged, we were able to use the disk hillers in leeks despite the rain (although it was raining too hard at this point to get the camera out!).

Disk-hilling leeks

Disk-hilling leeks

We then headed to the nearby Wildroot Farm where the York County Farmers’ Network was holding a potluck and meeting.  We retreated indoors to assemble the Weed Master, examine the components, and discuss the experiences from our field tests conducted to date.

Unloading the Weed Master at Wildroot Farm in Kennebunk.  July 7, 2009

Unloading the Weed Master at Wildroot Farm in Kennebunk. July 7, 2009

Farm Training Project Workshop

June 16, 2009

Peacemeal Farm, Dixmont, Maine

There was an impressive turnout Tuesday evening for the Weed Management workshop at the Peacemeal farm.  Part of the Farm Training Project Workshop program organized for farm apprentices, and others, by MOFGA, the Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association, the presentations, demonstrations and field tour for this session were focused on weeds.  After some introductory comments related to the ecology of weeds in organic farming systems, the seventy five participants moved to the field for a demonstration of hand tools, including the Weed Master.

Clayton Carter, Fail Better Farm, Montville, Maine, demonstrates the Weed Master to MOFGA Apprentices at the June 16 evening Farm Training Project Workshop on weeds.  Photo Credit: Mike Mardosa, University of Maine

Clayton Carter, Fail Better Farm, Montville, Maine, demonstrates the Weed Master to MOFGA Apprentices at the June 16 evening Farm Training Project Workshop on weeds. Photo Credit: Mike Mardosa, University of Maine

Mark Guzzie, Peacemeal Farm, Dixmont, Maine, offers Russell Libby, Executive Director of MOFGA a turn at the helm of the Weed Master.  Photo Credit: Mike Mardosa, University of Maine.

Mark Guzzie, Peacemeal Farm, Dixmont, Maine, offers Russell Libby, Executive Director of MOFGA a turn at the helm of the Weed Master. Photo Credit: Mike Mardosa, University of Maine.